Nehemiah Anchored Earth (AE) wall was first introduced in Malaysia in 1993. Since then, it has gained wide acceptance not only in Malaysia but oversea as well. The technology has been exported to Singapore and India. Todate over 700,000 m2 of walls has been built with varying heights, configurations and applications. The highest wall that has been built so far todate is 20.5m. The reasons for the popularity of the Nehemiah wall are cost effectiveness, versatility, excellent performance, attractive appearance, and speed of construction. The Nehemiah wall is applicable in a wide range of situations.

These applications include :


Urban Highway Interchanges
Of all the various applications,this category of application is the most popular. This is because the Nehemiah wall is ideal for fill situation which is true for most of the highway interchanges. Construction is rapid and the interference with the vehicular traffic is minimised due to the "erection from behind" method implemented. The large number of Nehemiah walls used for the Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road II project is a testimony of their popularity. The SPRINT expressway project in Kuala Lumpur (Photo 1) and the Autopont Bridge project along Jalan Masjid Negeri in Penang (Photo 2)clearly illustrate the application for urban highway interchanges. The next application is also related to highways but those found in mountainous region instead.

Photo 1 : Sprint Expressway, Kuala Lumpur
Photo 2 : Autopont Bridge along Jalan Masjid Negeri, Penang


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Mountainous Highways
An example of this application is found in the Kuala Lumpur- Karak Highway,Second East West Highway crossing the main range from Simpang Pulai near Ipoh in the west to Kuala Berang,Trengganu in the East. A typical cross-section is shown in Figure 1.

It is seen that the reinforcing bar length is shorter at the lower portion of the wall. This design configuration is important in order to minimise the amount of excavation there by resulting in cost saving. In addition, deep excavation into hillside can trigger slope stability problems. Photo 3 illustrates the difficult mountainous terrain that the construction of the Nehemiah wall has to overcome.

Photo 3 : PosSelim - Simpang Pulai Expressway

Another challenging situation for the application of Nehemiah Wall is the river which is subjected to erosive effect of water and floods.


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River Wall
The design of Nehemiah wall for river application is a different ball game altogether. The design has to cater for the hydraulic head differential during rapid draw down condition. In addition, the toe of the wall need to be protected from the effects of scouring. The bouyancy and seepage forces has to be factored in during the design computation as well. Photo 4 illustrates the use of Nehemiah wall for the widening and deepening of the Klang River.
The wall is designed to withstand floods whereby the wall is submerged. Another challenging application is when there is a landslide.

Photo 4 : Sg. Klang River Wall, Kuala Lumpur

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Slope Repair
Unlike river wall or highway application,the magnitude of this type of application is relatively small. But they are often critical and urgent. The approach to solve the slope failure problem is to use Nehemiah wall as a gravity buttress at the toe to provide stability. A typical cross-section is as shown in Figure 2. Besides slope repair, Nehemiah walls can also be used for railway application.


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Railway Embankment
The requirements for railway application are similar to highway application except that the settlement criteria for railway is more stringent. In addition, the dynamic force due to vibration from the rail need to be considered. A typical cross-section of the railway embankment is shown in Figure3.
An integral part of the railway and highway approach embankment is the bridge abutment. Nehemiah wall also find it application in this situation.



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Bridge Abutment
In this application,the bridge loads are often transferred to the bank seat which is in turn supported by piles as shown in Figure 4. Photo 5 illustrates the bridge abutment where by the bridge loads are supported by external columns.
Under this circumstance, the Nehemiah wall is acting merely as a retaining wall. If the subsoil's sufficiently strong, the Nehemiah wall can be designed to be load bearing and carry the bridge load directly. Perhaps, the most straightforward application of the Nehemiah wall is found in housing development.

Photo 5 : Bridge Abutment at Nilai Perdana, Negri Sembilan



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Housing Development

Nehemiah wall has been used for housing development to gain useable land especially in urban areas where the land cost is high. In rural areas where the land cost is low, it is cheaper to use earth slope instead of a retaining wall.

Photo 6 : Kurnia Perdana Condominium at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah


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Industrial Development
Besides housing, industrial development also constitute a significant demand for Nehemiah wall. Photo 7 shows an application for a LNG tank farm and Photo8 shows an application for a factory in Senawang.

Photo 7 : Kulim Hi-Tech Park, Kedah
Photo 8 : Goodmaid Chemical Factory at Senawang, Negeri Sembilan.


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From the above brief description, it is seen that Nehemiah wall is versatile and can be applied in a wide variety of situation in the most economical way.


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